Annotated Bibliography – Week 13

Cheston, C. C., Flickinger, T. E., & Chisolm, M. S. (2013). Social media use in medical education: a systematic review. Academic Medicine88(6), 893-901.

The authors of this article, conducted a systematic review of social media use in medical education specifically how social media affected out comes of satisfaction, knowledge, attitudes, and skills and challenges and opportunities that arose from these interventions. Out of 928 articles initially found in their search, they narrowed their results down to 14 articles that met their inclusion criteria. While this is a small amount, it points to the need for more research on this topic. They found that the biggest challenge was technical issues, which is common amongst early inclusion of technology based programs in education. They also found that no study reported professionalism or privacy issues.

In my opinion, the main strength of this study was that it was simply done. There is not much research out there on social media uses in medical education and as they state in the article, it will catch up eventually and medical educators will be behind. They used very broad terms and went through hundreds of article to best narrow their articles to study to those that fit their model. Blogs are very useful but need to be maintained and run efficiently and as the authors note, were the most commonly used amongst the 14 studies.

While I agree that there are significant limitations with the systematic review, I believe that more work needs to be done in this field and this study showing that they found only 14 reviews is a good turning point for the idea of social media in medical education. For the courses that I administer, students cannot function without technology but integrating more than just the basic BlackBoard or email systems is crucial with keeping up with the times. There are lots of apps related to medical education that have been produced but have not been widely used among medical educators. Simply producing PowerPoints and speaking in large group instruction rooms does not work like it used to, students expect different instruction styles that fit how they function in everyday life, high technology based.

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Annotated Bibliography – Week 12

Chodos, D., Stroulia, E., King, S., & Carbonaro, M. (2014). A framework for monitoring instructional environments in a virtual world. British Journal of Educational Technology45(1), 24-35.

This authors in this article researched the effects of recording and analyzing students actions in a virtual world related to patient hand-off from EMTs to Emergency Room doctors. Their virtual world had two settings, a car crash scene and a hospital emergency room. They specified all possible actions (movement, sensing, object manipulation, and communication) within their virtual world excluding irrelevant actions such as changing the clothes of the avatar. The sequence of the interaction with the virtual world started with a brief one-on-one training, the actual scenario and then a debrief session. They found that the 2 participants actions fit their roles accordingly however, the coordination among the participants needed improvement.

I appreciate the degree to which they monitored and collected data on the participant’s movements. I also like that this study could be replicated an infinite amount with the same participants for learning purposes and for anyone that was interested. It is much easier for those new to the medical profession to practice simulations and then apply that learning on real life situations. You can use VW’s to critique different aspects of the simulation multiple times and learn how to work as a team in ways people may not consider in real life application. I think this study is a great place to start and can be redesigned along that way as different mechanisms of handoffs change.

The topic of VW in teaching of hand offs applies to what I do in my current job. Part of our preventive medicine course is an emergency preparedness exercise. We do this in a classroom setting which could definitely be improved upon. A lot of the material has to be imagined by the students and I think something like a VW would be a great adaptation of the scenario we use. In the world we live in today, there are many things we need to be prepared for that may never happen but knowing what to do in a certain situation can mean life or death. Using VW’s to instruct an everyday civilian to a medical professional is a great place to start in reaching the most amount of people with interest.

Annotated Bibliography – Week 11

Ertmer, P. A., Richardson, J. C., Belland, B., Camin, D., Connolly, P., Coulthard, G., … & Mong, C. (2007). Using peer feedback to enhance the quality of student online postings: An exploratory study. Journal of Computer‐Mediated Communication, 12(2), 412-433.

The objective of this study was to analyze if peer feedback in online courses, specifically related to discussion postings, would increase the quality of the postings. The concepts of communication and feedback in online courses raise many questions regarding efficacy and efficiency. This study posited instructor and peer feedback to the learners and how this feedback was valued by the students. The majority of the participants were either currently of previously employed in education or administration and were all in an online graduate course. They used Bloom’s Taxonomy to assess the postings and everything was anonymized and run through the instructor before it was given to the students. They found that the quality of the postings did not improve over time and that at the beginning and end of the course, instructor feedback was more valued than peer feedback.

I appreciate that they also looked into how students felt about the process overall and did not just look at the quality of the postings. They found that students valued giving and receiving feedback equally which points to the learners working together and appreciating what the other students are doing which is integral in peer feedback. I also like that they started the class off by having the instructor give the feedback as preparation for the students having to do so later on in the course. This helps the students know what the instructor expects and how they use the rubrics.

Overall, I think peer feedback is essential to all deliveries of education, whether it’s online, blended or face-to-face. Peer feedback can be really helpful in terms of growing throughout a course since the student is receiving feedback from someone at their own level. However, it needs to be framed correctly, and shown to be useful to the students, not just a way for instructors to ease their workload. I believe that the instructor, no matter what they level are teaching, needs to frame expectations for the skill in a meaningful and deliberate way. They need to take themselves out of it in a way and simplify assessments to be meaningful to everyone in the course. I also strongly agree with peer feedback helping to create communities within online courses and having the feedback assist in communication between students and allow them to feel that they are not alone in a class and can work together with their peers in many different facets.

Annotated Bibliography – Week 10

Knobel, M., & Lankshear, C. (2014). Studying new literacies. Journal of adolescent & adult literacy58(2), 97-101.

In this article the authors give an overview of new literacies and their implications on K-12 education. The idea of new literacies is ever changing and a necessity for preparing children how the real world works and has proven to be successful in educating students and leading students to educate other students and receive constant feedback from one another. New literacies are able to encompass both novices and experts and create social situations that can be adapted to other parts of their lives. For this reason I really appreciate their description of new literacies as social practices (pg 98).

A lot of the article points out how new literacies function opposed to how typical classrooms do and what is absent in classroom and normal pedagogies taught to new educators. They express how changing literacy from print to digital functions completely differently and creates new possibilities. We cannot resist technology and realizing its potential and showing this to students at a young age will only help our work force in the future. I also like that they point out that writing is generally required for students for a, “hypothetical, generic audience” (page 99). New literacies opens the door to a much greater audience that may share the same interests or can learn something new that they didn’t know before.

As our class work has progressed I greatly question what potential educators are learning pedagogically in school and how that may need to change to adapt to things like new literacies and the ever changing landscape of technology in education. I like the ideas they present and how they use a real case study of a 16 year old who is thriving with new technologies based on a topic that many teenagers can relate to or want to learn about. We cannot ignore technological advancements and the fact that many elementary aged students have cell phones, tablets and computers at the ready in every setting except school. School is a great place to open student’s eyes to their potential interests and new literacies seems like a great way to incorporate this idea into education.

Annotated Bibliography – Week 9

Sansone, C., Smith, J. L., Thoman, D. B., & MacNamara, A. (2012). Regulating interest when learning online: Potential motivation and performance trade-offs. The Internet and Higher Education, 15(3), 141-149.

This study examined how motivation strategies, specifically Self-Regulated Motivation (SRM) differed between online and in person class environments. They used the same class that was delivered both online and on campus that included the same use of a class website. They looked at the students self-reported motivation strategies and compared those to their interest and performance (grades) in the class at the after the first exam and at the end of the class. They sent out 3 questionnaires throughout the course to assess the students use of SRM strategies. In terms of studying, they found difference in student’s motivation strategies but not in why they were motivated to study.

I like this study since most of their variables stayed consistent between the face to face and online course including: instructor, teaching assistant, textbooks, materials, and content website. The only difference was the obvious one of the face to face students receiving the content in person in lecture form and the online students having to review the content online through instructor notes and slides.

I like this topic since most courses that will be offered online in the future have been done in person before, unless they are part of a new degree program or something along those lines. Otherwise, the majority of classes have been done face to face and will need to be converted to online. Knowing how students differ in these environments is key to assessing their learning strategies and knowing why they are doing what they are and how they are studying or working with the course materials. If we can be proactive and study the inevitable now it will make for an easier transition to online learning for face to face instructors and courses.

Annotated Bibliography – Week 8

Price Kerfoot, B., Masser, B. A., & Hafler, J. P. (2005). Influence of new educational technology on problem‐based learning at Harvard Medical School. Medical education39(4), 380-387.

The authors of this article focused on the impacts of educational technology in the form of 50-inch wall-mounted plasma screens in Practice-Based Learning (PBL) small groups in a mixed methods study. They integrated this technology into a year 1 and year 2 course in the fall semester and a year 1 and year 2 course in the spring semester. From the fall to spring semester, the time the technology was used decreased quite a bit which may be a decrease in the novelty of it. They found that the overall feelings of the students and the tutors was a positive impact of the technology that opened their eyes to new ways of thinking and integrating technology into their curriculum.

A strength of this study is the mixed methodology. I appreciate that they not only wanted quantitative data, but qualitative as well to explain their positive feelings towards the new technology and how they actually were used. Their qualitative findings showed that the plasma screens changed the students thought processes and raised more questions of if this is a positive or negative, “Concerns were raised by multiple tutors that this immediate access to information through the internet undermined critical thinking on the part of the students” (385). Given that this study was conducted in 2002 and 2003, I appreciate that they were asking these questions before technology was greatly integrated, however, I don’t know that we have figured out this issue yet and how to deal with it.

This article relates to what I currently do what how we are trying to integrate technology into medical education. Sadly, we are not close to where Harvard was in 2002-03. We have projectors in our classrooms but the tutors using them are not all well versed in how to integrate them along with the technologies that students bring to class. Most students have a laptop or phone with them that they can look up questions they have immediately. The tutor may not even know they are doing so. In the small group setting this can be problematic, as the authors found with distractions and attention of the students. Technology in medicine is the inevitable, and teaching students how to use it before they go into practice is a necessity now as much as it was in the early 2000s before we had technology in every exam room, check-in, operating room and emergency department.

Annotated Bibliography – Week 7

Niess, M. L., van Zee, E. H., & Gillow-Wiles, H. (2010). Knowledge Growth in Teaching Mathematics/Science with Spreadsheets: Moving PCK to TPACK through Online Professional Development. Journal of Digital Learning in Teacher Education, 27(2), 42-52.

This study took on the task of evolving Shulman’s theory of Pedagogical Content Knowledge (PCK) into a modern-day application known as TPACK, technology, pedagogy and content knowledge, specifically focused on the use of spreadsheets in math and sciences curriculum in K-8. They created a course in a three-year online master’s degree program that focused on the integration of spreadsheets with science and math classes. They had twelve participants in their study, all of which had not previously integrated spreadsheet into their teaching. They conducted a qualitative analysis on the participants binders at the end of the course and conducted interviews to gauge how their perception of spreadsheets had changed from the beginning of the course.

A leading force behind this idea is that teachers must already have the PCK instilled in their pedagogical knowledge base, but lack the processes to integrate technology, specifically spreadsheets into their curriculum. The authors created a framework based on benchmarks that assessed the participants feelings of integrating technology into their classrooms. They explicitly defined these 5 levels and showed how a teacher can progress from one level to the next and how this relates to their integration of technology in their classrooms. They coupled the impacts of the spreadsheet learning tools that they were learning and how these effected their TPACK levels. They were able to conclude that all of the teachers had progressed to a higher level of TPACK than what they started out with.

This study relates to my interests in many ways. I took a class in college that was strictly devoted to using excel in business. I learned more in that class that I have been able to apply to real life personal and work situations. I learned how amortization tables work and how the math of a mortgage or credit card payment functions over decades. As the study stated, math and science being taught with pen and paper greatly diminishes the amount of data that can be analyzed, which I learned from the course I took in college, can be explicitly taught in excel in a much quicker and comprehensive fashion. This article also applies to my current career in medical education since we are constantly trying to find new ways to teach students and many of the ideas are to simply take what was being taught and add in technology rather than integrating it into the material. Technology can be thought provoking if used correctly, but if the teacher is not enthusiastic or comfortable with it, it is bound to fail.

Annotated Bibliography – Week 6

Hung, C. M., Hwang, G. J., & Huang, I. (2012). A Project-based digital storytelling approach for improving students’ learning motivation, problem-solving competence and learning achievement. Educational Technology & Society, 15(4), 368-379.

This study focused on the effects a combination of Project-Based Learning (PBL), an instructional strategy that by participating in a project, students learn by problem solving, collecting data, and discussing and presenting their results in reports, and digital story telling might have on elementary aged students in a science class in Taiwan. They looked at if student’s motivation, problem solving, and learning achievement would improve and what role gender played into the learning outcomes. The students completed pre and post tests and were asked to complete a digital storytelling project in groups. They found that the students learning motivation, attitude, problem-solving capability and learning achievements did improve with this model.

The software used in this study, Meta-Analyzer, gave very good step by step instructions to the students on how to complete their project. This is key in insuring that students do not burn out from a lack of understanding of what they are doing. They also used multiple scales to test how the students were doing throughout the process, including, pre-test of science learning motivation scale, problem-solving competence scale and the science achievement test. There were a lot of moving factors in this study but they seem to have had them mainly under control given the participant size (n=117).

This article relates strongly to a growing learning strategy in medicine, Interprofessional Education. The idea is that all members of a health care team, nurses, PA’s, RNs, MDs and DOs will work together to give the best care to the patient, rather than working in silos as many do. In the medical education field, we are trying to enforce this and getting students to collaborate with other health care providers and reinforce learning to each other. Related to this article, the patient is the project and their rounding where they describe how they patient is doing and where they currently are medically, is the storytelling. Patients deal with so many different care providers and making sure they are all on the same page is relevant in giving the best care.

Annotated Bibliography – Week 6 Extra

Hill, A. M., McPhail, S., Hoffmann, T., Hill, K., Oliver, D., Beer, C., … & Haines, T. P. (2009). A randomized trial comparing digital video disc with written delivery of falls prevention education for older patients in hospital. Journal of the American Geriatrics Society, 57(8), 1458-1463.

Historically, there has been inconsistency in the description, framework and mode of delivery in the field of patient education. The authors of this study aimed to find out the most effective means of educating older patients (aged 60 and older) in fall prevention while in the hospital. They created identical content in DVD and written forms and based that content on the Health Belief Model (HBM) framework, widely used in predicting preventive health behaviors. In total, they used 3 groups of patients, a control group who received no education (n=122), the DVD education group (n=49) and the workbook education group (n=51). All education was given bedside to the patient. They found that the patients who were educated using the DVD method had a greater self-perceived risk of falling after the education.

A strength of this study is that in both groups, over 90% of the patients completed the education. Their findings also fall in line with principles of adult education that suggest that visual and auditory modes of education are more effective in conveying information because they elicit many form of learning styles. I also appreciate that they did this in the hospital and not after the patients had left or before they were admitted. All participants were in the same hospital setting and received the same verbal information that was at a 7th grade reading level.

This article relates to an overall interest of mine in communication in health care. How we communicate with patients in terms of their health and care is key in successful patient care.  Most patients do not stay in the hospital for long periods of time, so when they leave they need to know how to care for themselves and how to ask the right corrections. In terms of falls, prevention is key and giving patients simple ways to do so is for the greater overall good. I also liked that this study doesn’t seem to have cost much money in terms of DVD production and printed workbooks. The simpler the means of education, the more people we can reach and aid in their health.

Annotated Bibliography – Week 5

Brusilovsky, P. (2000, June). Adaptive hypermedia: From intelligent tutoring systems to Web-based education. In Intelligent tutoring systems (Vol. 2000, pp. 1-7).

In this article, the author focuses on the evolution of adaptive hypermedia. He argues that hypermedia is not a one size fits all solution to web based learning and that adapting hypermedia to the individual learner makes it more useful. In a broad scope, a way to figure out what needs to be adapted in adaptive hypermedia, can depend on the idea of comparative explanations to connect new content to what the user already knows. They also argue that instead of simply giving the learner problems to solve, the intelligent tutoring systems needs to evolve into adaptive hypermedia. Constant evolution based on what the learner needs is necessary for hypermedia to remain relevant and useful to learners.

A strength of this article is that they want to constantly be looking at how to adapt the most used media in education (hypermedia) to the learner. Every learner is different and has different background knowledge to new concepts. Web-Based education has come a long way and in order to maintain a useful product, adaptive hypermedia is necessary. I liked the idea on page 4 of, “curriculum sequencing to provide the student with the most suitable individually planned sequence of knowledge”, and how it assists the student in finding their own “optimal path” to navigate through course material.

This article relates to my personal experiences with universities that tend to roll out new curriculum with a very broad stroke. Simply giving students information, does not ensure they will know what to do with it or how best to gain knowledge from it. Students learn in so many different ways and curriculum sequencing is vital to helping students succeed. Allowing students to adapt content and hypermedia to their own individual learning style should lead to more success than not. Creating the right path to get somewhere never applies to entire class sizes at universities and to expect it too is unrealistic.